So, it looks like you have 3x PCIe addon USB controllers as well as the 1x Intel controller which is onboard the HP Z840 motherboard (it looks like it could be interpreted as 3x Intel host controllers from the output dump but I suspect it is in fact only one ? Any way you can confirm from the spec of the motherboard in that Z840 ?).
In theory, that’s 4x controllers in total. If we assume as a basic start point your controllers support the typical 96 endpoints each, and if each drive was a USB attached drive using 3 endpoints each, that’s 72 drives x 3 endpoints = 216 endpoints required (bare minimum). On the face of it, that would work with those 4x controllers, but you have 9x 8-bay SYBA USB drive chassis’ to house the 72 drives (9x8 = 72).
I suspect, as mentioned above, that each of the SYBA chassis has it’s own internal USB hub with 8x USB–>SATA interfaces, which will likely use 2 endpoints each. Depending on the internal layout of the SYBA USB hubs, it may be grouped as 2x 4-port USB hubs, which are connected internally to a root hub, each of which will use 2x endpoints at least.
If the SYBA units have some kind of USB port(s) on the rear or front to connect additional USB devices (do they ?), these will likely also take 2 endpoints (even if nothing is connected to them) as they will effectively be a hub too.
Anyway, I would guess, unless you can confirm otherwise through spec/data sheets, that each SYBA unit will require the following endpoints as a minimum:
2 for USB root hub = 2
2 for each of the sub USB hubs (usually in banks of 4 ports) = 4
3 (possibly 5) for each of the 8x bays = 24 or 40
So potentially 46 endpoints when populated with drives. When you add this to the endpoints used internally by a USB controller (for it’s root hub(s)) then only one SYBA unit might be possible per controller, if the controller has a practical limit of 64 endpoints. Even if a controller has a limit of 96 endpoints (which is typical) then you will no doubt not get 2x SYBA units per controller as it could breach the 96 endpoints.
Again, as I said above, it depends on the capabilities of the controller(s). And all of the above example calculations will be even worse if the drives, when added, are taking 5x endpoints each.
Question. Is there any way you can ‘see’ the SYBA units connected, even if there are no drives in them ? I am not a Linux expert so can’t advise on what specifically to look for. Are the SYBA units hot plugable ? That is, can you insert drives to the SYBA whilst it is powered on ? What I would do is add one drive at at time and see if you can spot the ‘break’ point.
Also, see if you can find detailed specs on the USB side of everything - motherboard, controller cards, SYBA unit and it’s (internal) hub(s) etc.
But it sounds like 1x SYBA unit breaches some endpoint limitation to me, so the only way to get 9x working would be to use 9x controllers, which is effectively what I have on my systems (2x quad controller PCIe cards and 1x onboard controller).
Or - also mentioned above - you could try an older driver to force the SYBA’s into USB2.x mode (eHCI mode). Try to find an older driver from the same manufacturer, it’s possible and likely the card will be hardware compatible with older systems/drivers anyway. This will save some endpoints per controller when you start adding devices as the system will then just think they’re all USB2 rather than USB3.